# An indifference curve. Indifference Curve Analysis 2019-01-07

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## The Indifference Curve Analysis

An indifference curve which lies above and to the right of another shows preferred combinations of the two commodities. When in fact it definitely is changing. Many core principles of appear in indifference curve analysis, including individual choice, marginal utility theory, income and substitution effects, and the subjective theory of value. An indifference curve is a line showing all the combinations of two goods which give a consumer equal utility. There are four important properties of indifference curves that describe most of them: 1 Indifference curves are downward sloping, 2 higher indifference curves are preferred to lower ones, 3 indifference curves cannot intersect, and 4 indifference curves are convex i.

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## Indifference Curve Flashcards

If the consumer increases his consumption beyond X or K, total utility will fall. Such curves are in contradiction to the assumption that the consumer buys two goods in combinations. Notice that the lower indifference curve could have been drawn tangent to the lower budget constraint point D or point F, depending on personal preferences. With the substitution effect in place, now choose utility-maximizing point B on the new opportunity set. In other words, point A gives as much utility as point B to the individual. The substitution effect of a higher price for pizza meant that haircuts became relatively less expensive compared to pizza , and this factor, taken alone, would have encouraged Ogden to consume more haircuts.

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## Indifference Curves: Definition, Properties and Other Details

No utility function represents this preference ordering. Let's say, when you calculate it, in order to get. This optimal choice will shift to the right. They are convex to the origin. Now, put the substitution and income effects together.

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## Economics Ch 7 Flashcards

The indifference curve analysis measures utility ordinally. Along the indifference curve each point has a different monetary value, but its satisfaction is the same. Putting these effects together, Petunia responds to the higher wage by moving from choice A to choice B. By setting aside the assumption of putting a numerical valuation on utilityâan assumption that many students and economists find uncomfortably unrealisticâthe indifference curve framework helps to clarify the logic of the underlying model. Higher Indifference Curves Are Preferred to Lower Ones Consumers will always prefer a higher indifference curve to a lower one. Indifference curves do not intersect Indifference curve indicates what you are willing to buy The budget line shows what you are able to buy We must therefore bring together the indifference curve and the budget line to find out what quantities of each good you are both willing and able to buy The budget line is tangent to an indifference curve.

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## Indifference Curve

Thus an indifference curve is always convex to the origin because the marginal rate of substitution between the two goods declines. According to diminishing marginal rate of substitution, the rate of substitution of commodity X for Y decreases more and more with each successive substitution of X for Y. Just to show you that it's not those points. When the man drinks 12 cup of coffee, he consumes 1 cigarette every day. Thus I 3 is superior to I 2,1 2 to I, and so on. This ratio increases or decreases according to the quantity of the good that the consumer already has.

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## Indifference Curve Flashcards

What Is an Indifference Curve? So far we have established only that the line slopes downward from left to right. Choices B and G are both on the opportunity set. Indifference curves like Um are steeper on the left and flatter on the right. That is clearly not preferable, because, for example, that point I just showed, I can show a point on the indifference curve where I am better off. Conclusion: Thus it is concluded that i each indifference curve is a distinct line; ii it slopes downwards from left to right and iii it is convex to the origin.

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## Four Properties of Indifference Curves

If the marginal rate of substitution is increasing, the indifference curve will be concave to the origin. Numbers have no importance in the indifference curve analysis. In order to understand this more clearly we have to study the exact purport and significance in passing from one point to another on an indifference curve which is convex to the origin. Equilibrium of the Consumer : The equilibrium position of the consumer is shown in Fig. This line is a graphical tool that allows you to distinguish between the two changes: 1 the effect on consumption of the two goods of the shift in pricesâwith the level of utility remaining unchangedâwhich is the substitution effect; and 2 the effect on consumption of the two goods of shifting from one indifference curve to the otherâwith relative prices staying unchangedâwhich is the income effect. Conversely, if the price of a good that you have been buying rises, then the buying power of a given amount of income is diminished.

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## Properties of Indifference Curves

Indifference curves are lines in a coordinate system for which each of its points express a particular combination of a number of or bundles of goods that the consumer is indifferent to consume. Thus to be able to derive an indifference curve we have to rule out the possibility of lexicographic orderings which virtually amounts to ignoring addicts, whether it is cigarette, alcohol or chewing gum. The desired rate of commodity Substitute falls as consumer moves along the same indifference curve from left to right. This means that the consumer faces a diminishing marginal rate of substitution: the more hamburgers they have relative to hot dogs, the fewer hot dogs the consumer is willing to give up for more hamburgers. Obviously it changes as we go along this indifference curve. If you are finding it a little tricky to sketch diagrams that show substitution and income effects so that the points of tangency all come out correctly, it may be useful to follow this procedure. In other words, they are steeper on the left and flatter on the right.

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